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23 May 2022 Evaluation of Selective Deltamethrin Application with Household and Community Awareness for the Control of Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador
Mario J. Grijalva, Ana L. Moncayo, Cesar A. Yumiseva, Sofia Ocaña-Mayorga, Esteban G. Baus, Anita G. Villacís
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Abstract

Chagas disease is endemic in ∼70% of Ecuador. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Triatoma carrioni (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are the primary vectors of Chagas disease in Southern Ecuador. This study tested the effectiveness of selective deltamethrin application of Domiciliary Units (DUs) infested with triatomines, coupled with community education activities and a community-based surveillance system. Ten communities were selected in Loja Province, 466 DUs were examined, of these, 5.6% were infested with R. ecuadoriensis (Density [D] = 4 triatomines/DUs searched, Crowding [CR] = 71 triatomines/infested house, Colonization Index [CI] = 77% infested DUs with nymphs) and 8% with T. carrioni (D = 0.6, CR = 7, CI = 64%). Infested DUs were sprayed with deltamethrin. Subsequent visits were conducted at 6 and 12 mo after spraying. At each time point, new entomological searches were carried out in all DUs. All entomological indexes dropped significantly for the primary vector species one year after the initial intervention (R. ecuadoriensis: I = 2%, D = 0.1, CR = 7, CI = 100%; T. carrioni: I = 1.6%, D = 0.1, CR = 5.5, CI = 50%). Fifteen min educational talks were conducted in every DUs and workshops for schoolchildren were organized. Community-based surveillance system was established. However, there is a high risk of DUs reinfestation, possibly from sylvatic habitats (especially of R. ecuadoriensis) and reinforcing educational and surveillance activities are necessary.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Mario J. Grijalva, Ana L. Moncayo, Cesar A. Yumiseva, Sofia Ocaña-Mayorga, Esteban G. Baus, and Anita G. Villacís "Evaluation of Selective Deltamethrin Application with Household and Community Awareness for the Control of Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador," Journal of Medical Entomology 59(4), 1421-1433, (23 May 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjac050
Received: 3 October 2021; Accepted: 4 April 2022; Published: 23 May 2022
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KEYWORDS
Chagas disease
community education
community-based surveillance system
Ecuador
selective insecticide application
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