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20 October 2023 Jamestown Canyon virus comes into view: understanding the threat from an underrecognized arbovirus
John J. Shepard, Philip M. Armstrong
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This review examines the epidemiology, ecology, and evolution of Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and highlights new findings from the literature to better understand the virus, the vectors driving its transmission, and its emergence as an agent of arboviral disease. We also reanalyze data from the Connecticut Arbovirus Surveillance Program which represents the largest dataset on JCV infection in mosquitoes. JCV is a member of the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae, and is found throughout much of temperate North America. This segmented, negative-sense RNA virus evolves predominately by genetic drift punctuated by infrequent episodes of genetic reassortment among novel strains. It frequently infects humans within affected communities and occasionally causes febrile illness and neuroinvasive disease in people. Reported human cases are relatively rare but are on the rise during the last 20 yr, particularly within the northcentral and northeastern United States. JCV appears to overwinter and reemerge each season by transovarial or vertical transmission involving univoltine Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) species, specifically members of the Aedes communis (de Geer) and Ae. stimulans (Walker) Groups.The virus is further amplified in a mosquito-deer transmission cycle involving a diversity of mammalophilic mosquito species. Despite progress in our understanding of this virus, many aspects of the vector biology, virology, and human disease remain poorly understood. Remaining questions and future directions of research are discussed.

John J. Shepard and Philip M. Armstrong "Jamestown Canyon virus comes into view: understanding the threat from an underrecognized arbovirus," Journal of Medical Entomology 60(6), 1242-1251, (20 October 2023).
Received: 16 March 2023; Accepted: 8 June 2023; Published: 20 October 2023

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