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20 October 2023 Snowshoe hare virus: discovery, distribution, vector and host associations, and medical significance
Edward D. Walker, Thomas M. Yuill
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Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), within the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae, was first isolated from a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) in Montana, United States, in 1959. The virus, closely related to LaCrosse virus (LACV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), occurs across Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, primarily in the northern tier of states bordering Canada. Reports of SSHV in northern Europe and Asia are probably the closely related to CHATV, or the less closely related Tahyna virus. Vertebrate associations include snowshoe hares and ground squirrels, demonstrated by field isolation of virus from wild-caught animals, seroconversion of snowshoe hares, seroconversion of sentinel rabbits, isolation of virus from sentinel rabbits, and experimental infections demonstrating viremia. Isolations of virus from field populations of mosquitoes include primarily univoltine and boreal mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, Culiseta impatiens and Culiseta inornata; and, rarely, certain multivoltine floodwater Aedes species. Experimental transmission studies in mosquitoes show infection in and transmission by boreal Aedes and Culiseta inornata. Isolation of SSHV from larval Aedes on three occasions, and experimentation in Culiseta inornata, reveal transovarial transmission of the virus in mosquitoes. Serosurveys reveal exposure to SSHV in human and domestic animals, with rates of seropositivity commonly high in some settings in Alaska and Canada, but disease in humans or horses has rarely been reported, only in Canada.

Edward D. Walker and Thomas M. Yuill "Snowshoe hare virus: discovery, distribution, vector and host associations, and medical significance," Journal of Medical Entomology 60(6), 1252-1261, (20 October 2023).
Received: 1 June 2023; Accepted: 8 September 2023; Published: 20 October 2023

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California serogroup
snowshoe hare virus
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