Arnebolagus leporinus Lopatin and Averianov, 2008, known previously from a single tooth (P3) from the early Eocene Bumban Member of Naran Bulak Formation at Tsagan-Khushu locality in Mongolia, is redescribed based on additional specimens from the type locality. Phylogenetic relationships of Eocene stem lagomorphs from Asia and North America are reconstructed for the first time based on a parsimony analysis of 54 morphological characters and 32 taxa. Two new node-based clades are proposed, stemming from the most-recent common ancestor of LepusLinnaeus, 1758 and Dawsonolagus Li, Meng, and Wang, 2007 (Eulagomorpha new clade, ‘lagomorphs of the modern aspect') and from the most-recent common ancestor of Lepus and Gobiolagus Burke, 1941 (Epilagomorpha new clade). Arnebolagus Lopatin and Averianov, 2008 is geologically oldest and the most plesiomorphic eulagomorph, similar to Dawsonolagus from the early Eocene Arshanto Formation of China in its weakly pronounced, unilateral hypsodonty of the upper cheek teeth and its brachyodont lower cheek teeth with separate roots. Arnebolagus is more plesiomorphic than Dawsonolagus in having two roots of P4. Arnebolagus is the oldest known eulagomorph, the only taxon known from the earliest Eocene Bumbanian Asiatic Land Mammal Age (ALMA). The other Asiatic early Eocene eulagomorphs (Dawsonolagus, AktashmysAverianov, 1994, and RomanolagusShevyreva, 1995) come from the Arshantan ALMA.
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Vol. 95 • No. 2