Ecosystem services related to water supply are now a hot topic in ecology and hydrology. Here, water supply service in the Lancang River basin was evaluated using the newly developed model InVEST. We found the mean annual water supply in Lancang River basin is approximately 7.24E 10 m3 y-1 with 23.87% from main stream and 76.13% from the tributaries. There is an increasing trend downstream. Grasslands and forests contribute 71.66% of the total water. A comparison of water supply capacity per unit area for ecosystems of different composition indicates that there is a decreasing trend from broadleafed forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leafed forest, bamboo forest, coniferous forest, shrub forest and grassland. Two—thirds of the total water is provided by an area covering 40% of the total basin area. This study provides guidelines for the efficient management of water resources in the Lancang River basin.
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