Pairs of Sepiola atlantica maintained in aquaria at ∼17°C successfully mated in the “male parallel position” for between 21 min and 77 min. Over a period of several weeks after mating, female S. atlantica laid egg masses containing 8–161 eggs. At 14.4°C, embryonic development took 33 days and the hatching phase lasted for 23 days (mean hatching success, 32%). Hatchlings emerged from the eggs at a mean dorsal mantle length (DML) of 1.91 mm and entered a pelagic paralarval phase lasting 6 days. Ten to 20 days after hatching, the internal yolk sac became exhausted, whereupon hatchlings were fed ad libitum on wild-caught Zooplankton at a density of ∼90 organisms/L or with enriched adult Anemia (density, 50 organisms/L). Hatchlings maintained on the Artemia diet all died within 38 days, whereas ∼38% of those fed on Zooplankton survived to this point, and the remaining juveniles subsequently attained adulthood when reared on a diet of Crangon crangon. These laboratory-reared juveniles matured and successfully mated, but the females did not lay any eggs. Females subsequently died 230–250 days after hatching and 10–19 days after mating, at a DML of between 21.7 mm and 23.2 mm, whereas the smaller males died 265–293 days after hatching (DML, 17.4–21.4 mm). Growth (increase in DML) of S. atlantica had 2 phases. Growth during the first 120 days was relatively slow at 0.05 mm/day (0.043 mm/day in males and 0.055 mm/day in females), increasing slightly thereafter to day 210, after which growth leveled off. These data indicate that S. atlantica has a similar life cycle to other scpioids.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 29 • No. 1