Culex quinquefasciatus is one of China's major house-dwelling mosquito species and an important vector of filariasis and encephalitis. Chemical treatments represent one of the most successful approaches for comprehensive mosquito prevention and control. However, the widespread use of chemical pesticides has led to the occurrence and development of insecticide resistance. Therefore, in-depth studies of resistance to insecticides are of vital importance. In this study, we performed a gene expression analysis to investigate genes from Cx. quinquefasciatus that may confer pyrethroid resistance. We aimed to understand the mechanisms of Cx. quinquefasciatus resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and provide insights into insect resistance management. Using a resistance bioassay, we determined the deltamethrin LC50 values (lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population) for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae in the F21, F23, F24, F26, F27, and F30 generations. The 7 tested strains exhibited pesticide resistance that was 25.25 to 87.83 times higher than that of the SanYa strain. Moreover, the expression of the OBPjj7a (odorant-binding protein OBPjj7a), OBP28 (odorant-binding protein OBP28), and E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) genes was positively correlated with deltamethrin resistance (R2 = 0.836, P = 0.011; R2 = 0.788, P = 0.018; and R2 = 0.850, P = 0.009, respectively) in Cx. quinquefasciatus. The expression of 4 additional genes, H/ACA, S19, SAR2, and PGRP, was not correlated with deltamethrin resistance. In summary, this study identified 3 Cx. quinquefasciatus genes with potential involvement in deltamethrin resistance, and these results may provide a theoretical basis for the control of mosquito resistance and insights into resistance detection.
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