Imidacloprid, thiamethoxam (first and second generation neonicotinoid insecticides), and spinosad (a naturally derived biorational insecticide) were evaluated in the laboratory against adult eye gnats, Liohippelates collusor (Townsend), using two modes of exposure. Ingestion experiments revealed that toxicity was the highest for thiamethoxam (Platinum™ soluble concentrate) followed by technical thiamethoxam, imidacloprid (Admire® 2 flowable concentrate), and spinosad (Success* soluble concentrate). When incorporated into 5% sucrose solutions, eye gnat mortality was significantly increased compared to the same concentrations of aqueous insecticide solutions. Contact toxicity experiments revealed that thiamethoxam formulation (Platinum) was the most toxic, followed by technical thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, and spinosad. Increasing the duration of exposure time from 15 min to 30 min significantly increased adult eye gnat mortality, but no further mortality occurred by extending exposure from 30 min to 60 min. Our results suggest that Platinum has good ingestion and contact activity against adult eye gnats. Admire and Success have appreciable ingestion toxicity but low contact activity against adult eye gnats.
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