Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a major vector of Leishmania major (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Morphological characters of sand fly genitalia are key indicators for species identification. Various anomalies affecting male genitalia have been previously described. We take advantage of a large sand flies survey conducted in 32 stations in Central and Southern Morocco to systematically quantify the prevalence and spatial distribution of malformations affecting the genitalia of P. papatasi. Among 597 examined males, 122 were abnormal (20.4%). Malformations were widespread and largely concerned the number of spines in the lateral lobes and in the styles. Asymmetrical anomalies in lateral lobes were common. Correspondence analysis of our results highlighted the symmetrical anomalies observed in the lateral lobes, and abnormal styles of the male genitalia were found to be associated with environmental disturbances since they were prevalent in sewage dumps.
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