Two rabies control tactics, trap-vaccinate-release (T-V-R) and oral vaccination were used for the control of rabies in skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in metropolitan Toronto, Canada. Using T-V-R, a mean of 45% to 72% (95% confidence limits of 40% to 81%) of the skunks and a mean of 17% to 68% (95% confidence limits of 14% to 76%) of the raccoons in a 60 km2 area of Toronto were vaccinated against rabies between 1987 and 1991. The area has been free of skunk rabies from May 1989 to April 1992. Forty-five rabies cases were diagnosed during 1980 to 1986. In contrast, only three skunk cases have been reported since the vaccination program began in July 1987. The T-V-R area also remained rabies free during an epizootic of skunk rabies in metropolitan Toronto during 1991.
Following distribution of rabies vaccine-baits throughout the ravines of metropolitan Toronto, June 1989 to December 1991, 46% to 80% of the Toronto fox population was immunized during 1989, 1990 and 1991. Only one case of fox rabies was reported in metropolitan Toronto since vaccination began, compared to 80 cases reported between 1982 and 1988. The area has been free of reported fox rabies from October 1990 to April 1992.