Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are sympatric canids distributed throughout many regions of the Great Plains of North America. The prevalence of canid diseases among these two species where they occur sympatrically is presently unknown. From January 1997 to January 2001, we collected blood samples from 89 swift foxes and 122 coyotes on the US Army Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, SE Colorado (USA). Seroprevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 71% for adult (>9 mo old) and 38% for juvenile (≤9 mo old) swift foxes. Adult (≥1 yr old) and juvenile (<1 yr old) coyotes had a seroprevalence for CPV of 96% and 78%, respectively. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was 5% for adult foxes and 0% for juvenile foxes. Seroprevalence of CDV was 46% for adult coyotes and 18% for juvenile coyotes. No swift foxes had canine adenovirus (CAV) antibodies, whereas 81% and 63% of adult and juvenile coyotes, respectively, had antibodies for CAV. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 68% among adult foxes and 34% among juvenile swift foxes. Seroprevalence of Y. pestis antibodies was 90% and 70% for adult and juvenile coyotes, respectively. No swift foxes had antibodies against Francisella tularensis, whereas seroprevalence was 4% among both adult and juvenile coyotes. Antibodies against CPV and plague were common in both species, whereas antibodies against CDV and CAV were more prevalent in coyotes compared to swift foxes.
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Vol. 40 • No. 4