Research to determine noise impacts on animals benefits from methodology that adequately describes the acoustical stimulus as well as the resulting biological responses. We present acoustical considerations and research techniques that we have found to be useful. These include acoustical definitions and noise measurement techniques that conform to standardized acoustical practice and advice for controlled experimentation to supplement behavioral observation. Specific considerations include characteristics of noise stimulus, selection of noise metrics, use of frequency-weighting algorithms tailored to a specific animal species, selection and placement of noise measurement equipment, and methods for documenting animal responses. We also present arguments for measuring the noise stimulus at the location and time of each response observation. Our purpose is to recommend some baseline terminology, metrics, and techniques prerequisite to effective assessment of noise impacts on terrestrial wildlife whenever and wherever potential conflicts arise.
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Vol. 73 • No. 5