Sarcoids were diagnosed in two captive zebras from different facilities. Zebra 1 (Equus burchellii boehmi) was a 4.5-yr-old, captive-born male that presented with a 9- by 7-cm inguinal mass. Seven months after surgical excision of the inguinal mass, the zebra presented with a similar lesion in the right upper eyelid that has relapsed repeatedly and has not responded to treatment including local cisplatin injections and cryosurgery. Zebra 2 (of undetermined taxon) was housed at a private wild animal farm. The zebra presented with a single, raised, 2.5- by 2.0- by 2.0-cm, ulcerated mass on the nose, and surgical excision was curative. Histologically, the three masses consisted of a dermal, compact, nonencapsulated, poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of well-differentiated spindle cells arranged in streams and whorls and accompanied by moderate epidermal hyperplasia with long rete pegs. On the basis of the morphologic resemblance to the unique equine cutaneous neoplasm, “sarcoid” was diagnosed. This is the first description of sarcoids in captive zebras. Association with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1, as it occurs in horses, was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid sequencing, and in situ hybridization (ISH) on paraffin-embedded tissues from the inguinal mass of zebra 1. Sequencing revealed 98% identity of the 244-bp fragment with BPV type 1. The ISH for BPV type 1 DNA intensely stained the nuclei of neoplastic mesenchymal spindle cells. The sites and the clinical behavior of the sarcoids in these zebras are similar to those described in horses.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Vol. 36 • No. 1
Vol. 36 • No. 1
BPV type 1
in situ hybridization