This study reports urinalysis values for three species of captive rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, and Diceros bicornis) and evaluates individual and species differences. Repeated urinalysis was conducted on 11 individuals to establish normal reference ranges. Although no individual or species differences existed in urinary values for pH, all species differed in specific gravity. Rhinoceros urine demonstrated many physical and chemical properties similar to that of the horse, but reliability of this comparison was limited. Urinary pH in the rhinoceros was within range of that established for the horse and other large herbivores. However, all rhinoceros species exhibited urinary specific gravities below the lower limit of the normal equine reference range. Comparative urinalysis using an outside laboratory source confirmed the results of this study and illustrated the value of conducting in-house analysis. These results are the first data available on reference ranges for urine parameters in the greater one-horned, Sumatran, and African black rhinoceros and provide a useful diagnostic tool for the veterinary care of individuals in captivity.
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Vol. 39 • No. 3