A 2-yr-old female captive-born Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) presented with respiratory disease. A severe inspiratory dyspnea with nasal congestion was observed with open-mouthed breathing and bilateral mucopurulent nasal exudate. Despite initial treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory and supportive care, the dyspnea persisted. The animal was anesthetized for bronchoscopy to obtain a deep tracheal sample. Based on culture of Bordetella bronchiseptica and sensitivity, a combination of systemic enrofloxacin, dexamethasone, and coupage with nebulization of saline, gentamicin, and albuterol as well as supportive care resulted in full recovery after 6 weeks of treatment.
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Vol. 40 • No. 2