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1 March 2014 EVALUATION OF METOMIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE AS AN ANESTHETIC IN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS)
Grayson A. Doss, Javier G. Nevarez, Natalie Fowlkes, Anderson F. da Cunha
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Abstract

Metomidate hydrochloride is an imidazole-based, nonbarbiturate hypnotic drug primarily used as an immersion sedation and anesthetic agent in freshwater and marine finfish. To the authors' knowledge, there is no documentation in the literature of its use in amphibians. In this study, 7 male and 4 female leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were induced with metomidate hydrochloride via immersion bath at a concentration of 30 mg/L for 60 min. The pH of the induction solution ranged from 7.63 to 7.75. Each frog was then removed from the induction solution, rinsed, and recovered in 26.6°C amphibian Ringer's solution. After 210 min in the Ringer's solution, the frogs were transferred to moist paper towels for recovery. Heart rate, gular and abdominal respiration rates, righting reflex, superficial and deep pain withdrawal reflexes, corneal and palpebral reflexes, and escape response were monitored and recorded at defined intervals during both induction and recovery. The average time to loss of righting reflex and escape response was 17.36 min and 17.82 min, respectively. Metomidate produced clinical sedation in all frogs (n = 11). Surgical anesthesia was achieved in only 27% (3/11), with an anesthetic duration that ranged from 9 to 20 min. Recovery times were extremely prolonged and varied, with a range from 313 min to longer than 600 min. The findings of this study indicate that metomidate hydrochloride is unsuitable as a sole anesthetic agent in leopard frogs, and further research is needed to evaluate its suitability in other amphibians.

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Grayson A. Doss, Javier G. Nevarez, Natalie Fowlkes, and Anderson F. da Cunha "EVALUATION OF METOMIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE AS AN ANESTHETIC IN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45(1), 53-59, (1 March 2014). https://doi.org/10.1638/2013-0056R1.1
Received: 27 March 2013; Published: 1 March 2014
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
Anesthesia
bradycardia
leopard frog
metomidate hydrochloride
prolonged recovery
Rana pipiens
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