Bradypus torquatus is a rare and endemic sloth species from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Due to a lack of medical information including hematologic reference parameters for the species, hematologic baseline values were determined using samples from 14 clinically healthy B. torquatus, under captive (n = 7) and free-living (n = 7) conditions in Bahia State, Brazil. Additionally, the morphology of the blood cells is presented, with a demonstration that the Barr body chromosome may assist with sex determination of the species. The Barr body chromosome was present in all seven females and absent in all males. Many erythrocytes were approximately the size of small lymphocytes, with red blood cells exhibiting anisocystosis, normochromia, and apparent macrocytosis, compared with domestic animals. This study provides the first published hematologic values and cell morphology for B. torquatus. However, further studies are suggested using an automated hematology analyzer with larger sample sizes so that reference intervals may be established and hematologic values better understood for sex, habitat type, and age cohorts.
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