This article describes the treatment of clinical elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus; approximately 3 yr old), the dynamics of viral load during the active infection, and genetic analysis of the virus. Treatment included injectable acyclovir (12 mg/kg iv, bid), antibiotic, vitamin, and fluids. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the viral levels in blood, which decreased continuously after initiation of intravenous acyclovir. Low levels of virus were detected in the blood for 2 wk, and the virus was undetectable after 1 mo. No complication was observed during the treatment period. This case report suggests that acyclovir, given parenterally, could potentially enhance survival of clinical EEHV-infected individuals.
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