Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an infection associated with fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). This brief communication describes the postmortem evaluation of two Asian elephant calves diagnosed with EEHV4 and EEHV1A in conjunction with Clostridium perfringens infection. Case 1 was a 7-mo-old, male captive-born Asian elephant that developed diarrhea and died 2 days after clinical presentation. Examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen revealed predominantly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Case 2 was a 3-mo-old, female wild-born Asian elephant that showed signs of lethargy, anorexia, and convulsions and died 6 hr after clinical presentation. No intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed. The heart, lung, liver, and spleen of both calves tested positive for EEHV by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified EEHV4 and EEHV1A in Case 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, liver, spleen, and hemorrhagic intestinal tissue samples tested positive for C. perfringens α, β, and ϵ toxins. This is the first reported case to describe coinfection of EEHV and C. perfringens in Asian elephant calves.
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