Uterine lesions in two orangutans were effectively managed with surgical intervention. A 26-year-old hybrid orangutan (Pongo spp.) was diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis based on advanced imaging. Histologic evaluation identified multifocal myometrial endometriosis, a variant of adenomyosis. A 27-year-old Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) was diagnosed with a focal uterine fibroid based on histologic examination. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Both animals were treated intermittently for episodes of dysmenorrhea, with recurrence of clinical signs after each treatment. Due to the lack of consistent response to medical management, an ovariohysterectomy in the hybrid orangutan and a myomectomy in the Bornean orangutan were performed and resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. Surgical management of adenomyosis and neoplasia has previously been reported in nonhuman primates. These cases are the first known documentation of surgical management of multifocal myometrial endometriosis and a fibroid in orangutans.
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