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23 September 2019 COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE GAS VERSUS A GUAIFENESIN, KETAMINE, AND MEDETOMIDINE CONSTANT-RATE INFUSION FOR MAINTENANCE ANESTHESIA IN AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS)
Jessica L. Siegal-Willott, Kendra L. Bauer, Lee-Ann C. Hayek, Nicole M. Luensman, Tangara N. Cross, Jaime L. Sajecki, David L. McRuer
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Abstract

Published anesthetic protocols for captive and free-ranging bears are limited to injectable inductions with maintenance via inhalants or additional injectable boluses. Though common in other species, intravenous (IV) continuous-rate infusions (CRI) using guaifenesin combinations have not been evaluated in ursids. This study evaluated the use of a CRI compared to an inhalant for maintenance anesthesia. Seven healthy American black bears (Ursus americanus) were anesthetized in a crossover design with two different anesthetic maintenance protocols. Bears were immobilized with ketamine (2.02 ± 0.14 mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.04 ± 0.003 mg/kg) for both protocols. The anesthetic maintenance control protocol consisted of isoflurane gas (ISO) started at 2% delivered by endotracheal tube; the experimental protocol consisted of guaifenesin, medetomidine, ketamine (GMK) IV CRI started at 50 mg/kg/hr guaifenesin, 0.01 mg/kg/hr medetomidine, and 1 mg/kg/hr ketamine. Induction and recovery parameters including time to first effect, recumbency, and hands on; duration of maintenance protocol; and time from reversals administered to head up, standing on all four feet, no ataxia, and to fully recovered were recorded and compared between protocols. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, end tidal carbon dioxide, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded at 5-min intervals and compared between protocols. Venous blood gases were obtained at the start, middle, and end of the maintenance anesthesia and compared between protocols. All bears exhibited hypertension with mild respiratory acidosis throughout procedures. Measured physiologic parameters did not differ significantly between the isoflurane and the GMK CRI maintenance protocols, with the exception of higher endpoint (ISO) pCO2 measurements. No adverse events were recorded with either protocol, and adequate depth of anesthesia was maintained with both protocols. GMK CRI provides a safe, effective, and more portable alternative to inhalant anesthetics for maintenance anesthesia in bears in captivity or in the field.

Copyright 2019 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jessica L. Siegal-Willott, Kendra L. Bauer, Lee-Ann C. Hayek, Nicole M. Luensman, Tangara N. Cross, Jaime L. Sajecki, and David L. McRuer "COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE GAS VERSUS A GUAIFENESIN, KETAMINE, AND MEDETOMIDINE CONSTANT-RATE INFUSION FOR MAINTENANCE ANESTHESIA IN AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 50(3), 570-578, (23 September 2019). https://doi.org/10.1638/2018-0124
Accepted: 22 March 2019; Published: 23 September 2019
KEYWORDS
American black bear
Anesthesia
constant rate infusion
guaifenesin
Ursus americanus
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