Population pharmacokinetics utilizing sparse sampling were used to determine pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) due to their slow growth rate and the limited number of appropriately sized individuals in the zoo-housed population. Twenty-five eastern hellbenders received a single subcutaneous injection of ceftazidime at 20 mg/kg. Each animal had blood samples collected up to four times between 0 and 192 hr postinjection. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was fitted to the data to determine typical values for population parameters, an ideal method due to the sampling limitation of each hellbender. Results indicate an elimination half-life of 36.63 hr and volume of distribution of 0.31 L/kg. Antibiotic concentrations were above a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 8 µg/ml for 120 hr. Prior to antibiotic administration, six hellbenders had oral and six other individuals had cloacal swabs taken for aerobic culture. Fifty-five bacterial isolates were obtained (24 cloacal, 31 oral) with 10/12 (83%) individuals growing three or more different isolates and 11/12 (92%) growing Shewanella putrefaciens. Twelve isolates had susceptibility testing performed and all were susceptible to ceftazidime. These results indicate that ceftazidime is an appropriate choice of antibiotic in hellbenders and when given at a dosage of 20 mg/kg subcutaneously, maintains concentrations above the MIC of susceptible bacteria for up to 5 days.
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1 April 2021
POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTAZIDIME AFTER A SINGLE SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION AND NORMAL ORAL AND CLOACAL BACTERIAL FLORA SURVEY IN EASTERN HELLBENDERS (CRYPTOBRANCHUS ALLEGANIENSIS ALLEGANIENSIS)
Kari E. Musgrave,
Christopher S. Hanley,
Mark G. Papich