In Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes significant calf mortality. Coagulation testing may aid veterinarians in early identification and management of hemostatic disorders. This study sought to establish reference intervals for select coagulation and platelet values. Blood was collected from clinically healthy Asian elephants (n = 63) in juvenile (≤15 yr old, n = 9), adult (>15 to ≤50 yr old, n = 41), and geriatric (>50 yr old, n = 13) age classes at seven institutions in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Activated clotting time (ACT) was immediately assessed with a handheld analyzer, whereas remaining blood was stored at 5°C in sodium citrate and potassium EDTA collection tubes and transported to a central laboratory. Coagulation values were assessed on an automated blood coagulation analyzer, and platelet values were assessed on a hematology analyzer. Reference intervals were established for ACT, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and plateletcrit according to the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines. No significant differences were observed for any value when comparing sex and time to centrifugation. Plasma fibrinogen (P = 0.002) and platelets (P = 0.003) varied significantly by age class, with adults displaying the highest fibrinogen concentrations and geriatric individuals displaying the lowest platelet counts. The ACT kaolin cartridges resulted in high success rates (84.3% feasibility) compared with celite cartridges (4.8% feasibility). Further studies are warranted to stratify reference intervals in accordance with age class trends.
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16 June 2022
POINT-OF-CARE AND STANDARD LABORATORY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR COAGULATION VALUES IN ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS): VARIATION BY AGE CLASS, SEX, AND TIME TO CENTRIFUGATION
Kathryn E. Ziegner,
Miranda J. Sadar,
Peter M. DiGeronimo