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We examined the morphology of the male genitalia of six Muridae and five Cricetidae in the Muroidea focusing on the medial and lateral bacular mounds, as well as their ossification patterns to discuss the diversity and the movement mechanism of the trident structure. All examined species possessed a medial bacular mound and two lateral bacular mounds, which collectively formed a trident structure. In the Muridae species, the medial bacular mound was ossified or consisted of cartilage, while the lateral bacular mounds were composed of soft tissue. By contrast, both the medial and lateral bacular mounds were ossified in the Cricetidae species. Among the Muridae species, the medial bacular mound was well developed, and the lateral bacular mounds were small in Mus and Micromys species while the medial bacular mound was highly developed, and the lateral bacular mounds were developed in Apodemus speciosus. Different combinations of developmental characteristics of the medial and lateral bacular mounds produced variation in the glans penis morphology. Histological examination of A. speciosus and Craseomys rufocanus suggested that the movement of the lateral bacular mounds was driven by blood flowing into the cavernous space, and the movement increases the cross-sectional area of the glans penis.