Mountain Research and Development (MRD) (ISSN 0276-4741, online ISSN 1994-7151) is published by the International Mountain Society (IMS), c/o Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 10, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Institutional Members of the International Mountain Society (IMS)

SDC, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Bern

ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

CONDESAN, Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion, Lima

CDE, Centre for Development and Environment, Bern

MRI, Mountain Research Initiative, Bern

UCA/MSRI, Mountain Societies Research Institute, University of Central Asia, Bishkek

ICAS, Interacademic Commission for Alpine Studies, Bern

CMS, Centre for Mountain Studies, Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Perth, Scotland

DIG, Department of Integrative Geography, Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern

IMHE, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China

MRD collaborates with Mountain Forum (MF) and The Mountain Partnership (MP) to further the cause of mountains on the international development and research agendas.

Editorial Office

Hans Hurni, Editor-in-Chief

David Molden, Editor-in-Chief

Susanne Wymann von Dach, Associate Editor

Anne Zimmermann, Associate Editor

Marlène Thibault, Assistant Editor

Debby Mosher, Production Editor

Martin Price, Book Review Editor

Honorary Board

Jack D. Ives (Canada)

Bruno Messerli (Switzerland)

Lawrence S. Hamilton (USA)

D. Jane Pratt† (USA)

Yuri P. Badenkov (Russia)

International Editorial Board

Tena Alamirew (Ethiopia), Ruchi Badola (India), Jill S. Baron (USA), Astrid Björnsen Gurung (Switzerland), Bernard Debarbieux (Switzerland), Yayoi Fujita Lagerqvist (Australia), José M. García-Ruiz (Spain), Georg Gratzer (Austria), Thomas Hofer (Italy), Jacek Kozak (Poland), Hermann Kreutzmann (Germany), James P. Lassoie (USA), Peter Messerli (Switzerland), Elizabeth Migongo-Bake (Kenya), Joanne Millar (Australia), Marcus Nüsser (Germany), Stefano Pagiola (USA), Lina Sarmiento (Venezuela), Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt (China), Hans Schreier (Canada), Eklabya Sharma (Nepal), Surendra Pratap Singh (India), Thomas Streifeneder (Italy), Alejandro Velázquez (Mexico), Rolf Weingartner (Switzerland), Jianchu Xu (China).

Representatives of IMS Institutional Members

André Wehrli (SDC, Switzerland); Eklabya Sharma (ICIMOD, Nepal); Thomas Hofer (FAO, Italy); Miguel Saravia (CONDESAN, Peru); Thomas Kohler (CDE, Switzerland); Gregory B. Greenwood (MRI, Switzerland); Horst Weyerhaeuser (UCA/MSRI, Kyrgyz Republic); Thomas Scheurer (ICAS, Switzerland); Martin Price (CMS, Scotland, UK); Urs Wiesmann (DIG, Switzerland); Yanhong Wu (IMHE, China).

Publication Policy

Mountain Research and Development is published quarterly by the International Mountain Society and is freely available online and open access in collaboration with BioOne (

The journal is subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Ownership of the copyright to articles is retained by the authors, but anyone may download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy articles in MRD provided that the original authors and source are cited. Permission for commercial use must be obtained from the author. For any reuse or redistribution of a work, the license terms under which the work was published must be made clear.

Print Version

The MRD Editorial Office supplies print-ready PDF files of individual articles or entire issues including covers for de-localized printing to Institutional Members of the IMS upon request. Authors and readers may produce their own printouts from the downloadable PDFs available at, or contact for professional reprints of articles.


MRD is indexed in the Science Citation Index, Current Contents/ Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Geo Abstracts, C.A.B. International Series Checklist, AGRICOLA databases, Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts (MGA), CABS (Current Awareness in Biological Sciences), and others. MRD is also listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ProQuest, EBSCO, and Gale/Cengage Learning.


Please address correspondence to:

MRD Editorial Office

Centre for Development and Environment

University of Bern

Hallerstrasse 10

3012 Bern, Switzerland



Please note that all papers must be submitted online.


Please send material for “MountainMedia” to:

Martin Price

Director, Centre for Mountain Studies

Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands,

Crieff Road, Perth PH1 2NX, UK

Fax +44(0)1738-877 018


Back Issues

MRD is published online and open access in collaboration with BioOne. All back issues of MRD from 2000 onwards are available online and free of charge through BioOne; previous issues (1981–2000) are available online through JSTOR ( and single articles may be purchased there.

For single hardcopy issue sales from Volume 20 through Volume 28, please contact

© Copyright (2015) by the International Mountain Society (IMS) for the journal

© 2015 by the authors for the individual articles

© 2015 by the authors
"Publisher Information," Mountain Research and Development 35(3), 218, (1 August 2015).
Published: 1 August 2015
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