The IUCN/ SSC Primate Specialist Group is developing a series of guidelines to address critical issues in great ape conservation, drawing on the expertise of PSG members to create a consensus of best practices for field conservationists. Each publication in the new series will provide up-to-date guidance for scientists working on a daily basis with great apes, as well as for the many development organizations, donors and government agencies that are involved in great ape conservation. Contents: 1. Summary; 2. Introduction, review and use osf these guidelines; 3. Assessment of human-great ape conflict (HGAC): Preparatory issues; 4. Review of potential HGAC counter measures and their effectiveness; 5. Planning a HGAC management strategy; 6. Conclusions,  http://www.primate-sg.org/best.practices.htm


This history reviews the information published on the controversy of the discovery of an alleged Neotropical ape that resulted in one of the most notorious scientific frauds of the 20th Century. Such finding supposedly occurred either in 1917 or 1918 while oil prospecting in the forests of the Tarra River region, located in the southwestern part of Lake Maracaibo, Zulia state, Venezuela. This case was as much discussed as it was unresolved. Detailed analysis of the archival sources suggested that the naming of such a primate was a fraud orchestrated by the Swiss physician George Montandon and de Loys himself, resulting in one of the most notorious scientific frauds of the 20th Century. This investigation provides previously unpublished information about this case -whose development seems to be resolved in Venezuela, through the account of a third witness, the Venezuelan physician Enrique Tejera.


In this book, an international cast of leading animal biologists reflect on the enduring significance of Tinbergen's groundbreaking proposals for modern behavioural biology. It includes a reprint of Tinbergen's original article on the famous ‘four whys’ and a contemporary introduction, after which each of the four questions are discussed in the light of contemporary evidence. There is also a discussion of the wider significance of recent trends in evolutionary psychology and neuroecology to integrate the “four whys”. With a foreword by one of Tinbergen's most prominent pupils, Aubrey Manning, this wide-ranging book demonstrates that Tinbergen's views on animal behaviour are crucial for modern behavioural biology. Contents: 1. On aims and methods of ethology — N. Tinbergen; 2. Tinbergen's four questions and contemporary behavioral biology — J. A.Hogan and J. J. Bolhuis; 3. Causation: the study of behavioral mechanisms — J. A.Hogan; 4. Tinbergen's fourth question, ontogeny: sexual and individual differentiation — D. Crews and T. Groothuis; 5. The development of behavior: trends since Tinbergen (1963) — J. A. Hogan and J. J. Bolhuis; 6. The study of function in behavioral ecology — I. Cuthill; 7. The evolution of behavior and integrating it towards a complete and correct understanding of behavioral biology — M. J. Ryan; 8. Do ideas about function help the study of causation? — D. F. Sherry; 9. Function and mechanism in neuroecology: looking for clues — J. J. Bolhuis.


This book provides a grand overview and a conceptual framework for addressing poverty reduction in the context of conservation and conservation in the context of poverty reduction, including recent developments in theory, field-work and new case studies from Francophone Africa and Latin America. The book begins by looking at the rationale for addressing the links between conservation and poverty reduction, arguing that such a focus is both ethically essential and a source of opportunities. This is followed by a review of experiences in dealing with people and conservation and identifies some key lessons and concepts. The next section presents key illustrative case studies followed by a discussion of some of the issues that appear when implementing combined conservation and poverty reduction. The emphasis is on the importance of multiple spatial scales and seeking negotiated trade-offs between scales. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Past Experiences; 3. Case Studies; 4. Scale, Landscapes, Boundaries and Negotiation; 5. Structures, Institutions and Rights; 6. Linking Conservation and Poverty Reduction.

ARTICLES

1.

L. M. Aguiar , G. Ludwig and F. C. Passos 2009. Group size and composition of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) on the Upper Parana River, Southern Brazil. Primates. 50(1). Pgs: 74–77. Google Scholar

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M. Amendola-Pimenta , L. Garcia-Feria , J. C. Serio-Silva and V. Rico-Gray 2009. Noninvasive collection of fresh hairs from free-ranging howler monkeys for DNA extraction. Am. J. Prim. 71(4). Pgs: 359–363. Google Scholar

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N. Asensio , A. H. Korstjens and F. Aureli 2009. Fissioning minimizes ranging costs in spider monkeys: a multiple-level approach. Behav. Ecol. & Sociobio. 63(5). Pgs: 649–659. Google Scholar

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B. M. Bezerra , A. A. Barnett , A. Souto and G. Jones 2009. Predation by the tayra on the common marmoset and the pale-throated three-toed sloth. J. Ethol. 27(1). Pgs: 91–96. Google Scholar

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B. Bower 2009. Capuchin monkeys choose the right tool for the nut. Science news. 175(4). Pgs: 12. Google Scholar

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F. A. Campo and L. M. Fedigan 2009. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138(1). Pgs: 101–111. Google Scholar

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S. de la Torre and C. T. Snowdon 2009. Dialects in pygmy marmosets? Population variation in call structure. Am. J. Prim. 71(4). Pgs: 333–342. Google Scholar

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M. S. L. Figueiredo and C. E. V. Grelle 2009. Predicting global abundance of a threatened species from its occurrence: implications for conservation planning. Diver. & Distributions. 15(1). Pgs: 117–121. Google Scholar

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A. Gonzalez-Zamora , V. Arroyo-Rodríguez , O. M. Chaves , S. Sanchez-Lopez , K. E. Stoner and P. Riba-Hernández 2009. Diet of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Mesoamerica: current knowledge and future directions. Am. J. Prim. 71(1). Pgs: 8–20. Google Scholar

10.

R. E Kay , J. G. Fleagle, T. R. T. Mitchell , M. Colbert , T. Bown and D. W. Powers 2009. The anatomy of Dolichocebus gaimanensis, a stem platyrrhine monkey from Argentina. J. Hum. Evol. 54(3). Pgs: 323–382. Google Scholar

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Q. Liu , K. Simpson P. Izar , E. Ottoni , E. Visalberghi and D. Fragaszy 2009. Kinematics and energetics of nut-cracking in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piaui, Brazil. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138(2). Pgs: 210–220. Google Scholar

12.

M. Mannu and E. B. Ottoni 2009. The enhanced toolkit of two groups of wild bearded capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: tool making, associative use, and secondary tools. Am. J. Prim. 71(3). Pgs: 242–251. Google Scholar

13.

A. Marcili , V. C. Valente , S. A. Valente , A. C. V. Junqueira , F. Maia da Silva , A. Y. N. Pinto, R. D. Maiff , M. Campaner , J. R. Coura , E. P. Camargo , M. A. Miles and M. M. G. Teixeira 2009. Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian Amazonia: lineages TCI and TCIIa in wild primates, Rhodnius spp. And in humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission. Int. J. Parasitology. 39(5). Pgs: 615–623. Google Scholar

14.

L. A. Menescal , E. C. Goncalves , A. Silva , S. F. Ferrari and M. P. C. Schneider 2009. Genetic diversity of red-bellied titis (Callicebus moloch) from Eastern Amazonia based on microsatellite markers. Biochem. Gen. 47(3–4). Pgs: 235–240. Google Scholar

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K. Milton , J. D. Loizer and E. A. Lacey 2009. Genetic structure of an isolated population of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Cons. Gen. 10(2). Pgs: 347–358. Google Scholar

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S. Peker , M. M. Kowalewski , R. E. Pave and G. E. Zunino 2009. Births in wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northern Argentina. Am. J. Prim. 71(3). Pgs: 261–265. Google Scholar

17.

E. S. Perini , V. F. Pessoa and D. M. A. Pessoa 2009. Detection of fruit by the Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata): modeling color signals for different background scenarios and ambient light intensities. J. Exp. Zool. On line 1–14. Google Scholar

18.

M. B. Pesendorfer , T. Gunhold , N. Schiel , A. Souto , L. Huber and F. Range 2009. The maintenance of traditions in marmosets: individual habit, not social conformity? A field experiment. Plos one. 4(2). Pgs: e4472(online 1–9.) Google Scholar

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L. M. Porter , P. A. Garber and E. Nacimento 2009. Exudates as a fallback food for Callimico goeldii. Am. J. Prim. 71(2). Pgs: 120–129. Google Scholar

20.

S. S. B. Silva and S. F. Ferrari 2009. Behavior patterns of southern bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanas) in the fragmented landscape of eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Am. J. Prim. 71(1). Pgs: 1–7. Google Scholar

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K. Y. Slater , C. M. Schaffner and F. Aureli 2009. Sex differences in the social behavior of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis). Am. J. Prim. 71(1). Pgs: 21–29. Google Scholar

22.

S. Van Belle , A. Estrada , T. E. Ziegler and K. B. Strier 2009. Sexual behavior across ovarian cycles in wild black howler monkeys (Ahuatta pigra): male mate guarding and female mate choice. Am. J. Prim. 71(2). Pgs: 153–164. Google Scholar

23.

E. Visalberghi , N. Spagnoletti , E. D. Ramos da Silva , F. R. D. Andrade , E. Ottoni , P. Izar and D. Fragaszy 2009. Distribution of potential suitable hammers and transport of hammer tools and nuts by wild capuchin monkeys. Primates. 50(2). Pgs: 95–104. Google Scholar

24.

E. Visalberghi , E. Addessi , V. Truppa , N. Spagnoletti , E. Ottoni , P. Izar and D. Fragaszy 2009. Selection of effective stone tools by wild bearded capuchin monkeys. Current Biol. 19(3). Pgs: 213–217. Google Scholar

Appendices

ABSTRACTS

Selected abstracts from the 31st Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists. West Palm Beach, Florida, June 18–21, 2008  http://www.asp.org/asp2008/showConfSchedule.cfm

Amendola-Pimenta, M., Rico-Gray, V. and Piñero-Dalmau, D. Habitat disturbance and genetic variability of populations of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Campeche, Mexico: Implications for conservation.

Bonilla-Sanchez, Y. M., Serio-Silva, J. C., Pozo-Montuy, G. and Bynum, N. Demography of Alouatta pigra in threated habitat in south-eastern Mexico.

Bustos, C. A., Corkum, L. D., Slater, K. Y. and Mennill, D. J. Acoustic characteristics of the vocalizations of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the fragmented low-land forests of Honduras.

Dampier, S. M. To see or not to see: factors affecting captive capuchin visibility (Cebus apella robustus).

Depeine, C. D., Rotundo, M., Juarez, C. P. and Fernandez-Duque, E. Hoot calling in owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) of Argentina: Sex differences and function.

Field, M. Y. Nursing behavior in a group of human-commensal white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons) in Misahualli, Ecuador.

Gibson, S. V., Tustin, G. W., Williams, L. E., Schuler, A. M., Brady, A. G. and Abee, C. R. Reproduction in an owl monkey breeding colony (Aotus sp.).

Hooff, S. B. and Wolovich, C. K. Captive owl monkeys respond to novel flavors with neophobia, discrimination, and food sharing.

Hores, R. M., Wolovich, C. K. and Evans S. Is it worth the risk? Novel food presentation affects behavior in captive owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

Ionica, C. S., Robbins, K. L., Novak, M. F. S. X. and Suomi, S. J. Multimodal data input using touchscreen technology, voice recording and speech recognition in adverse field conditions.

Jarcho, M. R., Mason, W. A., Mendoza, S. P. and Bales, K. L. Intranasal vasopressin administration effects on pair-bonding and gene expression in monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus).

Jasso, C. and Estrada, A. Tropical rain forest fragmentation and social interactions in young howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata).

Juárez, C. P., Berg, W. J. and Fernandez-Duque, E. An evaluation of the potential long-term effects of radio-collars on the reproduction and demography of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in Formosa, Argentina.

Kitzmann, C. D., Main, D. E., Mendoza, S. P. and Bales, K. L. Vocal behavior of adult titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) in a separation paradigm.

Matthews, S. A. and French, J. A. Parental care influences on pubertal timing in female wied's black tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii).

Parr, N., Campos, F., Childers, A., Fedigan, L. and Jack, K. Dry season ranging behavior and intergroup relations in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Santa Rosa national park, Costa Rica.

Paukner, A., Huntsberry, M. E., Ferrari, P. F. and Suomi, S. J. Imitation recognition in capuchin monkeys.

Perea-Rodríguez, J. P., Milano, A. M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Osherov, B. E. Gastrointestinal parasites of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) living in edge and non-edge territories in a gallery forest in northern Argentina.

Phillips, K. A. and Liu, S. T. Sylvian fissure asymmetries in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

Pokorny, J. J. and de Waal, F. B. How capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) categorize visual images of themselves: in-group vs. out-group.

Pozo-Montuy, G., Serio-Silva, J. C. and Bonilla-Sánchez, Y. M. The effects of anthropogenic pressure on the behaviour and demography of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in south-eastern Mexico.

Ross, C. N., Tardif, S., Davis, K., Dobek, G. and Brasky, K. Relations among body composition, activity, hematology, and age in male common marmosets: Toward a model of frailty.

Rutherford, J. N. Placental insulin-like growth factor ii (igfii) and its relation to litter size and placental weight in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Saltzman, W., Boettcher, C. A., Crosno, K. A. and Abbott, D.H. Effects of lactation on pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Savage, A., Thomas, L., Leighty, K., Soto, L., Causado, J. and Medina, F. The development of a census technique for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.

Smith, A. S. and French, J. A. Maternal androgen levels during pregnancy are associated with early-life growth and aggressive behavior of offspring in geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

Smucny, D. A. When primatologists go public: applying “best practices” for informal science education to teaching the general public about primates.

Stone, B. W., Menzel, C. R., Evans, T. A., Benoit, J. and Fragaszy D.M. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) learn to point with a laser.

Trejo-Macías, G., Estrada, A. and Mosqueda-Cabrera, M. A. Preliminary study of gastrointestinal helminths in howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living in a cacao plantation in southern Mexico.

Van Belle, S., Estrada, A., Ziegler, T. E. and Strier, K. B. Behavioral and endocrine characteristics of the ovarian cycle in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

Wolovich, C. K., Hooff, S. and Evans, S. Owl monkeys don't just give a hoot: Preferred food elicits trills.

"Books," Neotropical Primates 16(1), 47-50, (1 June 2009). https://doi.org/10.1896/044.016.0112
Published: 1 June 2009
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