Capanemia Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae) currently includes 17 epiphytic, predominantly Brazilian species. As part of an ongoing revision of this genus, we herein propose new synonyms and typifications for several taxa. After a thorough revision of both herbarium material and many living specimens in cultivation collected in southern and southeastern Brazil, we herein recognize only seven species, six of which are treated here: C. brachycion (Griseb.) Schltr., C. carinata Barb. Rodr., C. gehrtii Hoehne, C. micromera Barb. Rodr., C. superflua (Rchb. f.) Garay, and C. therezae Barb. Rodr; the seventh species, C. adelaidae Porto & Brade, is recognized as valid but not treated here, since no taxonomic or nomenclatural problems were detected regarding this species. New synonymies are proposed: C. ensata Pabst is referred to C. gehrtii; C. angustilabia Schltr., C. australis (Kraenzl.) Schltr., C. lossiana L. Kollmann, C. perpusilla Schltr., C. riograndensis Pabst, and C. spathuliglossa Pabst are referred to C. micromera; and C. fluminensis Pabst is referred to C. therezae. Lectotypes are proposed for C. angustilabia, C. carinata, C. micromera, C. perpusilla, C. spathuliglossa, and C. therezae. A neotype is proposed for C. hatschbachii Schltr.
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