Alpinia oui Y. H. Tseng & Chih C. Wang, a new species of Zingiberaceae from southeastern Taiwan, is described and illustrated. This new species belongs to subgenus Alpinia Roxb. sect. Alpinia subsect. Catimbium (Horan.) R. M. Sm. It resembles A. zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm. in the shape and size of the flowers, but differs in the denser inflorescences and the dense brown pubescence of the capsules. According to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, this species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU D1), because its wild populations number less than 1000 individuals and are so far known from only one locality in southeastern Taiwan.
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