Three new species of Paepalanthus Mart. sect. Diphyomene Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae) from Minas Gerais (Brazil) are described and illustrated. Paepalanthus arcuatus Trovó, defined by its curved leaves, is known only from the Serra do Cipó National Park and shares morphological characters with P. decussus Körn. Paepalanthus linearis Trovó, defined by its linear leaves, is known exclusively from Itacambira and resembles P. polycladus Silveira. Paepalanthus sericiscapus Trovó, defined by its sericeous scapes, is known only from the type specimens collected in the Serra da Canastra and resembles P. arcuatus. All the species are known only from their type localities and are assigned a preliminary conservation status of Critically Endangered. Morphological variation, habitat, geographic distribution, and conservation status are noted.
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