Several species of Rudgea Salisb. and Carapichea Aubl. from the lowlands of the western Amazon basin have been confused due to their morphological similarity, in particular their relatively large leaves of similar aspect and relatively large, fleshy, yellow or white fruits, and are reviewed here. Three belong to Carapichea, the previously described species C. adinantha (Standl.) C. M. Taylor and C. verrucosa C. M. Taylor and one newly described here, C. cardenasiana C. M. Taylor from southern Colombia and western Brazil. Four species belong to Rudgea, R. bracteata J. H. Kirkbr. and three newly described here: R. huashikatii C. M. Taylor & Bruniera of southeastern Ecuador and adjacent Peru, R. spiciformis C. M. Taylor & Bruniera of northeastern Peru, and R. yasuniana C. M. Taylor & Bruniera of eastern Ecuador and adjacent Peru.
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