Philodendron Schott subg. Philodendron is the largest of three subgenera, with 457 described species, which are mainly distributed in the Andes, Amazonia, Central America, and the Chocó ecoregion. Through the exhaustive revision of herbarium specimens and recent explorations in remote areas of Panama, seven species are described as new to science, P. cerrojefense M. M. Mora & Croat, P. chepiganense O. Ortiz, Croat & Rodr.-Reyes, P. coibense Croat & O. Ortiz, P. darienense O. Ortiz, Croat & Rodr.-Reyes, P. longilobum M. M. Mora & Croat, P. martinezii Croat & O. Ortiz, and P. samudioense Croat & O. Ortiz, and two new records of Philodendron have been identified for Panama, P. anisotomum Schott and P. auriculatum Standl. & L. O. Williams, all belonging to the subgenus Philodendron. For each taxonomic novelty, illustrations, taxonomic information, and notes on its distribution and conservation status are provided.