Pollen analysis supported by 25 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from the Tǎul Negru peat bog (1143 m) in the Lǎpuş Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) is used to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation history of this mountain region. The vegetation record at Tǎul Negru starts at c. 10,500 cal yr BP with dense montane forests dominated by Picea abies (spruce) and Ulmus (elm). Corylus avellana (hazel) spread after 10,000 cal yr BP and reached maximum frequencies between 9000 and 7000 cal yr BP before decreasing. Thereafter, Picea prevailed in the forests with Carpinus betulus (hornbeam) expanding after 5700 cal yr BP, attaining maximum representation at 4200 cal yr BP. Fagus sylvatica (beech) spread from 4800 cal yr BP onwards with a short decline around 3700 cal yr BP. Mass expansion resumed afterwards, leading to the ultimate recession of Picea, Corylus and Ulmus. Fagus predominates the forests to the present. Small-scale human influence on the landscape (cereal-type pollen grains, Poaceae, and Plantago lanceolata) first appeared after 6000 cal yr BP. Further anthropogenic impact was detected after 5000 cal yr BP, and was slightly stronger between 2300 cal yr BP and the twelfth century AD with regular and increasing appearances of primary and secondary cultural indicators. Large-scale forest clearing in the lowlands and foothills with more agriculture led to the development of the modern cultural landscape in the last 500 years.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 44 • No. 3