UV radiation measured on normal-to-the-sun-oriented surfaces can show significantly higher global UV irradiance values compared to measurements on horizontal receivers. The direct component is amplified by the inverse cosine of the zenith angle, but over surfaces with high local albedo this accounts for only about half of the signal rise of global irradiance. The signal rise of the diffuse component, however, is strongly related to local albedo and solar elevation, which is demonstrated by 2 years of measurements of direct, diffuse, global, reflected and global normal-to-the-sun erythemal effective UV irradiance (UVery). Global UVery signal rises, on normal-to-the-sun-oriented versus horizontal receivers, of up to 65% were measured on fresh snow and solar elevation angles below 30°. An empirical expression has been deduced from the measurements relating the ratio of normal-to-the-sun versus horizontal measurements of global UVery to surface albedo and solar elevation. This allows one to calculate the maximum global UVery irradiance levels which are to be expected on normal-to-the-sun-oriented surfaces with respect to horizontal measurements or model calculations.
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Vol. 73 • No. 4