The effect of virus inactivation by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) phototreatment, methylene blue (MB) phototreatment or heat on the activities of antioxidant systems of stroma-free hemoglobin (SFH) was studied. DMMB photoinactivated human immunodeficiency virus by >3.69 log10 under conditions that inactivated 3.33 log10 of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Under conditions which inactivated VSV by 6.10 log10 (1.37 J/cm2 irradiation and 2 μM DMMB), there was little change in the methemoglobin (Met-Hb) formation, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), or superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) or glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities. However, the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased by 77%. Under conditions that inactivated VSV by 5.69 log10 (1.37 J/cm2 irradiation and 24 μM MB) there was little effect of MB phototreatment on SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH activities. However, GR activity was decreased by 74% and Met-Hb content reached 3.98%. Under conditions that inactivated VSV by more than 6.20 log10 (60°C for 2 min), virucidal heat treatment resulted in 27% Met-Hb formation and decreased GPX activity by 43%. No significant decline in SOD, CAT or GR activities or GSH concentration was observed. These results suggest that, compared with heat treatment and MB phototreatment, virucidal DMMB treatment preserves not only the oxidative state of hemoglobin but also the antioxidant systems against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, although the reduced GR activity may limit the quenching capacity of antioxidants in DMMB-treated SFH.
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Vol. 74 • No. 3