Native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma were studied in the visible spectral region, at two different excitation wavelengths, 405 and 420 nm, to discriminate patients with different stages of oral malignancy from healthy subjects. The fluorescence spectra of blood plasma of oral malignant subjects exhibit characteristic spectral differences with respect to normal subjects. Different ratios were calculated using the fluorescence intensity values at those emission wavelengths that give characteristic spectral features of each group of experimental subjects studied. These fluorescence intensity ratios were used as input variables for a multiple linear discriminant analysis across different groups. Leave-one out cross-validation was used to check the reliability of each discriminant analysis performed. The discriminant analysis performed across normal and oral cancerous subjects classified 94.7% of the original grouped cases and 93.7% of the cross-validated grouped cases. A classification algorithm was developed on the basis of the score of the discriminant functions (discriminant score) resulted in the analyses. The diagnostic potentiality of the present technique was also estimated in the discrimination of malignant subjects from normal and nonmalignant diseased subjects such as liver diseases. In the discriminant analysis performed across the three groups, normal, oral malignancy (including early and advanced stages) and liver diseases, 99% of the original grouped cases and 95.9% of the cross-validated grouped cases were correctly classified. Similar analysis performed across normal, early stage of oral malignancy, advanced oral malignancy and liver diseases correctly classified 94.9% of the original grouped cases and 91.8% of the cross-validated grouped cases.
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Vol. 78 • No. 2