UV radiation affects human health. Human exposure to UV radiation causes a few beneficial health effects like vitamin D3 formation but it causes many detrimental health effects: sunburn, ocular damage, photoaging, immune suppression, DNA damage and skin cancer. In countries with fair-skinned populations, skin cancer is the most diagnosed of all cancers. In the United States in 2002, there were over one million new skin cancer cases. That means one out of every 285 people got skin cancer. Skin cancer of fair-skinned individuals is increasing at an alarming rate (4–6% per year) around the world and has now reached so-called “pandemic” proportions. Thus, it is important to know what UV doses people around the world get throughout their lives. This review covers how the outdoor UV doses are weighted for different biological effects, the most commonly used measuring devices for terrestrial and personal UV doses, the natural and other effects on terrestrial and personal UV doses, the time people spend outside, their ambient exposures and the terrestrial and personal UV doses of adult outdoor and indoor workers as well as children and adolescents around the world. Overall, outdoor-working adults get about 10%, while indoor-working adults and children get about 3% (2–4%) of the total available annual UV (on a horizontal plane). People's UV doses increase with increasing altitude and decreasing latitude; most indoor-working adult Europeans get 10 000–20 000 J/m2 per year, Americans get 20 000–30 000 J/m2 per year and Australians are estimated to get 20 000–50 000 J/m2 per year (excluding vacation, which can increase the dose by 30% or more).
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 81 • No. 4