We present a quantitative framework to model a Type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) process in the time domain in which a set of rate equations are solved to describe molecular reactions. Calculation of steady-state light distributions using a Monte Carlo method in a heterogeneous tissue phantom model demonstrates that the photon density differs significantly in a superficial tumor of only 3 mm thickness. The time dependences of the photosensitizer, oxygen and intracellular unoxidized receptor concentrations were obtained and monotonic decreases in the concentrations of the ground-state photosensitizer and receptor were observed. By defining respective decay times, we quantitatively studied the effects of photon density, drug dose and oxygen concentration on photobleaching and cytotoxicity of a photofrin-mediated PDT process. Comparison of the dependences of the receptor decay time on photon density and drug dose at different concentrations of oxygen clearly shows an oxygen threshold under which the receptor concentration remains constant or PDT exhibits no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the dependence of the photosensitizer and receptor decay times on the drug dose and photon density suggests the possibility of PDT improvement by maximizing cytotoxicity in a tumor with optimized light and drug doses. We also discuss the utility of this model toward the understanding of clinical PDT treatment of chest wall recurrence of breast carcinoma.
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Vol. 81 • No. 6