Polyunsaturated fatty acids located in leukemia cell membranes are excellent targets for peroxidation. They can significantly enhance the effectiveness of Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced cell killing. In this study, the peroxidizability of conjugated fatty acid isomers (9c,11t-linoleic acid and 9c,11c-linoleic acid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid) with 2,2′-azo-bis(2-amidinpropane)dihydrochloride, soybean lipoxygenase and photomediated peroxidation are compared with each other. Peroxidation was determined using different methods: by means of gas chromatography to estimate the fatty acid (FA) consumption, by photometry for the level of FA peroxides or phospholipid peroxides and by definition of the content of malondialdehyde for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The results suggest that the generation of oxidation products from individual FAs indicate a different formation rate of oxidation products. Radical FA peroxides were produced most by polyunsaturated arachidonic acid, followed by linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid, whereas conjugated FA isomers did not generate peroxides. Accordingly, the levels of lipid peroxides and TBARS were substantially increased after incorporation and oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs into U937 cells and could significantly enhance the effectiveness of Photofrin-PDT–induced cytotoxicity. The results showed that PUFA, but not conjugated FA supplementation of U937 cells, can act as a PDT amplification factor.
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Vol. 82 • No. 3