Binder, A., Serafin, A. and Bohm, L. Abrogation of G2/M-Phase Block Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Daunorubicin, Melphalan and Cisplatin in TP53 Mutant Human Tumor Cells.
Irradiation of human melanoma (MeWo, Be11) and squamous cell carcinoma (4451, 4197) cells induces cell cycle blocks from which the cells recover to re-enter mitosis after 40–60 h. In the TP53 mutant cell lines, MeWo and 4451, irradiation induces a G2-phase block, where the fraction of cells in G2 phase reaches a maximum after 18–20 h. In the TP53 wild-type cell lines, 4197 and Be11, a G1- and G2-phase block is reached 12 and 16 h postirradiation, respectively. Addition of pentoxifylline after irradiation at the time when the number of cells in G2 phase has reached a maximum shortens the normal recovery from G2-phase block to approximately 7 h. Addition of daunorubicin, melphalan and cisplatin under these conditions markedly enhanced drug toxicity. In the TP53-mutated cell lines MeWo and 4451, the survival ratio at 7 Gy measured by colony formation was 2.3–2.8, 8.6–85 and 52–74 for daunorubicin, melphalan and cisplatin, respectively. In the TP53 wild-type cell lines, the corresponding survival ratios were found to be 1.3–1.4, 2.3–3.0 and 1.2–2.6, respectively. The survival ratios are for clonogenic survival after 7 Gy and 2 mM pentoxifylline and measure the influence of drug doses that ensure 95% survival in nonirradiated controls. The results indicate that the G2-phase block is a crucial event in the damage response that can be manipulated to achieve a significant enhancement of drug toxicity. These effects are particularly pronounced in TP53 mutant cells and are observed at drug doses well below the clinical range.