Sudhir Chandna, B. S. Dwarakanath, Divya Khaitan, T. Lazar Mathew, Viney Jain
Radiation Research 157 (5), 516-525, (1 May 2002) https://doi.org/10.1667/0033-7587(2002)157[0516:LDRHIH]2.0.CO;2
Chandna, S., Dwarakanath, B. S., Khaitan, D., Mathew, T. L. and Jain, V. Low-Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity in Human Tumor Cell Lines: Effects of Cell–Cell Contact and Nutritional Deprivation. Radiat. Res. 157, 516–525 (2002).
The hyper-radiosensitivity at low doses recently observed in vitro in a number of cell lines is thought to have important implications for improving tumor radiotherapy. However, cell–cell contact and the cellular environment influence cellular radiosensitivity at higher doses, and they may alter hyper-radiosensitivity in vivo. To confirm this supposition, we investigated the effects of cell density, multiplicity and nutritional deprivation on low-dose hypersensitivity in vitro. Cell survival in the low-dose range (3 cGy to 2 Gy) was studied in cells of two human glioma (BMG-1 and U-87) and two human oral squamous carcinoma (PECA-4451 and PECA-4197) lines using a conventional macrocolony assay. The effects of cell density, multiplicity and nutritional deprivation on hyper-radiosensitivity/induced radioresistance were studied in cells of the BMG-1 cell line, which showed prominent hypersensitivity and induced radioresistance. The induction of growth inhibition, cell cycle delay, micronuclei and apoptosis was also studied at the hyper-radiosensitivity-inducing low doses. Hyper-radiosensitivity/induced radioresistance was evident in the cells of all four cell lines to varying extents, with maximum sensitivity at 10–30 cGy, followed by an increase in survival up to 50 cGy–1 Gy. Both the glioma cell lines had more prominent hyper-radiosensitivity than the two squamous carcinoma cell lines. Low doses inducing maximum hyper-radiosensitivity did not cause significant growth inhibition, micronucleation or apoptosis in BMG-1 cells, but a transient G1/S-phase block was evident. Irradiating and incubating BMG-1 cells at high density for 0 or 4 h before plating, as well as irradiating cells as microcolonies, reduced hyper-radiosensitivity significantly, indicating the role of cell–cell contact-mediated processes. Liquid holding of BMG-1 cells in HBSS 1% serum during and after irradiation for 4 h significantly reduced hyper-radiosensitivity, suggesting that hyper-radiosensitivity may be due partly to active damage fixation processes at low doses. Therefore, our findings suggest that the damage-induced signaling mechanisms influenced by (or mediated through) cell–cell contact or the cellular environment, as well as the lesion fixation processes, play an important role in hyper-radiosensitivity. Further studies are required to determine the exact nature of the damage that triggers these responses as well as for evaluating the potential of low-dose therapy.