Epperly, M. W., Gretton, J. E., Sikora, C. A., Jefferson, M., Bernarding, M., Nie, S. and Greenberger, J. S. Mitochondrial Localization of Superoxide Dismutase is Required for Decreasing Radiation-Induced Cellular Damage. Radiat. Res. 160, 568–578 (2003).
We investigated the importance of mitochondrial localization of the SOD2 (MnSOD) transgene product for protection of 32D cl 3 hematopoietic cells from radiation-induced killing. Four plasmids containing (1) the native human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD, SOD1) transgene, (2) the native SOD2 transgene, (3), the SOD2 transgene minus the mitochondrial localization leader sequence (MnSOD-ML), and (4) the SOD2 mitochondrial leader sequence attached to the active portion of the SOD1 transgene (ML-Cu/ZnSOD) were transfected into 32D cl 3 cells and subclonal lines selected by kanamycin resistance. Clonogenic in vitro radiation survival curves derived for each cell clone showed that Cu/ZnSOD- and MnSOD-ML-expressing clones had no increase in cellular radiation resistance (D0 = 0.89 ± 0.01 and 1.08 ± 0.02 Gy, respectively) compared to parent line 32D cl 3 (D0 = 1.15 ± 0.11 Gy). In contrast, cell clones expressing either SOD2 or ML-Cu/ZnSOD were significantly radioresistant (D0 = 2.1 ± 0.1 and 1.97 ± 0.17 Gy, respectively). Mice injected intraesophageally with SOD2-plasmid/liposome (MnSOD-PL) complex demonstrated significantly less esophagitis after 35 Gy compared to control irradiated mice or mice injected intraesophageally with Cu/ZnSOD-PL or MnSOD-ML-PL. Mice injected with intraesophageal ML-Cu/ZnSOD-PL showed significant radioprotection in one experiment. The data demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial localization of SOD in the in vitro and in vivo protection of cells from radiation-induced cellular damage.