Hook, G. J., Zhang, P., Lagroye, I., Li, L., Higashikubo, R., Moros, E. G., Straube, W. L., Pickard, W. F., Baty, J. D. and Roti Roti, J. L. Measurement of DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Molt-4 Cells after In Vitro Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation. Radiat. Res. 161, 193–200 (2004).
To determine whether exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation can induce DNA damage or apoptosis, Molt-4 T lymphoblastoid cells were exposed with RF fields at frequencies and modulations of the type used by wireless communication devices. Four types of frequency/modulation forms were studied: 847.74 MHz code-division multiple-access (CDMA), 835.62 MHz frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA), 813.56 MHz iDEN® (iDEN), and 836.55 MHz time-division multiple-access (TDMA). Exponentially growing cells were exposed to RF radiation for periods up to 24 h using a radial transmission line (RTL) exposure system. The specific absorption rates used were 3.2 W/kg for CDMA and FDMA, 2.4 or 24 mW/kg for iDEN, and 2.6 or 26 mW/kg for TDMA. The temperature in the RTLs was maintained at 37°C ± 0.3°C. DNA damage was measured using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The annexin V affinity assay was used to detect apoptosis. No statistically significant difference in the level of DNA damage or apoptosis was observed between sham-treated cells and cells exposed to RF radiation for any frequency, modulation or exposure time. Our results show that exposure of Molt-4 cells to CDMA, FDMA, iDEN or TDMA modulated RF radiation does not induce alterations in level of DNA damage or induce apoptosis.