Davis, S., Stepanenko, V., Rivkind, N., Kopecky, K. J., Voillequé, P., Shakhtarin, V., Parshkov, E., Kulikov, S., Lushnikov, E., Abrosimov, A., Troshin, V., Romanova, G., Doroschenko, V., Proshin A. and Tsyb, A. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in the Bryansk Oblast of the Russian Federation after the Chernobyl Power Station Accident. Radiat. Res. 162, 241–248 (2004).
This population-based case–control study investigated whether exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl Power Station accident is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents aged 0–19 years at the time of the accident who were residing in the more highly contaminated areas of the Bryansk Oblast. Cases were diagnosed with thyroid cancer before October 1, 1997 (n = 26); two controls per case were identified from the Russian State Medical Dosimetrical Registry and were matched by gender, birth year, and raion of residence and type of settlement (urban, town, rural) on April 26, 1986 (n = 52). Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated using a semi-empirical model and data were collected in interviews, primarily of the participants' mothers. Based on a loglinear dose–response model treating estimated dose as a continuous variable, the trend of increasing risk with increasing dose was statistically significant (one-sided P = 0.009). These data suggest that exposure to radiation from Chernobyl is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, and that the relationship is dependent on dose. These findings are consistent with descriptive reports from contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, and the quantitative estimate of thyroid cancer risk is generally consistent with estimates from other radiation-exposed populations.