Chatterjee, S., Premachandran, S., Bagewadikar, R. S. and Poduval, T. B. The Use of ELISA to Monitor Amplified Hemolysis by the Combined Action of Osmotic Stress and Radiation: Potential Applications. Radiat. Res. 163, 351–355 (2005).
A new assay has been developed to study the osmotic fragility of red blood cells (RBCs) and the involvement of oxygen-derived free radicals and other oxidant species in causing human red blood cell hemolysis. The amount of hemoglobin released into the supernatant, which is a measure of human red blood cell hemolysis, is monitored using an ELISA reader. This ELISA-based osmotic fragility test compared well with the established osmotic fragility test, with the added advantage of significantly reduced time and the requirement of only 60 μl of blood. This small amount of blood was collected fresh by finger puncture and was immediately diluted 50 times with PBS, thus eliminating the use of anticoagulants and the subsequent washings. Since exposure of RBCs to 400 Gy γ radiation caused less than 5% hemolysis 24 h after irradiation, the RBC hemolysis induced by γ radiation was amplified by irradiating the cell in hypotonic saline. The method was validated by examining the protective effect of Trolox, an analog of vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH), a well-known radioprotector, against human RBC hemolysis caused by the combined action of radiation and osmotic stress. Trolox, a known membrane stabilizer and an antioxidant, and GSH offered significant protection. This new method, which is simple and requires significantly less time and fewer RBCs, may offer the ability to study the effects of antioxidants and membrane stabilizers on human red blood cell hemolysis induced by radiation and oxidative stress and assess the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.