Tokuzumi, S., Hori, M., Monobe, M., Hosoi, Y. and Kojima, S. Effect of Nitric Oxide on γ-Ray-Induced Micronucleus Frequency in RAW264.7 Cells. Radiat. Res. 164, 723–732 (2005).
The effect of low-dose nitric oxide (NO) on γ-ray-induced micronucleus (MN) frequency was investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 0.25 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a chemical NO donor, reduced the frequency of micronuclei induced by 5 Gy γ rays by 43 to 45% between 3 and 12 h post-treatment. This effect was blocked by carboxy-PTIO, suggesting that NO may play a role in the reduction of radiation-induced MN frequency. To examine possible mechanisms underlying this effect, we first looked at changes in the antioxidant system after SNP treatment. A significant increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) was seen in SNP-treated cells between 3 and 12 h post-treatment. Depletion of GSH with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) increased the γ-ray-induced increase in MN frequency. Detailed studies using various inducers of intracellular GSH suggested that GSH induction has a partial role in the reducing effect of NO on the γ-ray-induced MN frequency. Next, the effect of NO on DNA repair and replication systems was examined. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), dose-dependently inhibited the reducing effect of NO, while caffeine, an inhibitor of ATM kinase and ATR kinase, did not. DNA-PK activity was increased by NO treatment. Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, dose-dependently blocked the effect of NO in reducing the γ-ray-induced MN frequency. These results suggest that the mechanisms of the effect of NO on the γ-ray-induced MN frequency include elevation of GSH and up-regulation of DNA-PK activity for repairing double-strand breaks. NO may act as a signal for repair systems, e.g. for nonhomologous recombination and for the replication system in S phase, to reduce the MN frequency.