Santini, M. T., Romano, R., Rainaldi, G., Ferrante, A., Motta, A. and Indovina, P. L. Increases in 1H-NMR Mobile Lipids are not Always Associated with Overt Apoptosis: Evidence from MG-63 Human Osteosarcoma Three-Dimensional Spheroids Exposed to a Low Dose (2 Gy) of Ionizing Radiation. Radiat. Res. 165, 131–141 (2006).
The metabolic changes that occur in MG-63 osteosarcoma three-dimensional tumor spheroids exposed to 2 Gy of ionizing radiation, a dose that is comparable to radiation therapy, were studied using high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Specifically, the 1H-NMR spectra of control and exposed MG-63 spheroids were compared. Small spheroids (about 50–80 μm in diameter) with no hypoxic center were used. The spectra of whole MG-63 spheroids as well as the perchloric acid extracts of these systems were evaluated. Cell damage was also examined by lactate dehydrogenase release and changes in cell growth. No cell damage was observed, but numerous metabolic changes took place in spheroids after exposure to ionizing radiation. In particular, significant increases in both CH2 and CH3 mobile lipids, considered by many authors as markers of apoptosis and also present in MG-63 spheroids undergoing overt apoptosis, were observed in spheroids irradiated with 2 Gy. However, the chromatin dye Hoechst 33258 and DNA fragmentation assays showed no overt apoptosis up to 7 days after irradiation with this low dose. Thus it is evident that increases in mobile lipids do not always indicate actual cell death. A detailed analysis of the other metabolic changes observed appears to suggest that the cell death program was initiated but not completed. In fact, the completely different behavior of two important cellular defense mechanisms, reduced glutathione and taurine, in spheroids irradiated with 2 Gy and in those undergoing overt apoptosis seems to indicate that these systems are protecting spheroids from actual cell death. In addition, these data also suggest that 1H-NMR can be used to examine the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation in spheroids, a cell model of great complexity that closely resembles tumors in vivo. The importance of this possibility in relation to reaching the ultimate goal of a better evaluation of the outcome of radiotherapy protocols should not be ignored.