Zeni, O., Di Pietro, R., d'Ambrosio, G., Massa, R., Capri, M., Naarala, J., Juutilainen, J. and Scarfì, M. R. Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in L929 Cells after Exposure to 900 MHz RF Radiation with and without Co-exposure to 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone. Radiat. Res. 167, 306–311 (2007).
The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of reactive oxygen species in murine L929 fibrosarcoma cells exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation at 900 MHz, with or without co-exposure to 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a potent environmental carcinogen produced during chlorination of drinking water. Both continuous-wave and GSM mobile phone signals were applied for 10 or 30 min at specific absorption rates of 0.3 and 1 W/kg. Simultaneous sham exposures were performed for each exposure condition. MX treatment was performed at a subtoxic level of 500 μM, and the RF-field exposure was carried out during the first 10 or 30 min of the chemical treatment. The formation of reactive oxygen species was followed soon after the exposure and at different harvesting times until 1 h after RF-field treatment. The studied provided no indication that 900 MHz RF-field exposure, either alone or in combination with MX, induced formation of reactive oxygen species under any of the experimental conditions investigated. In contrast, exposure to MX resulted in a statistically significant increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species for all the treatment durations investigated, confirming that MX is an inductor of oxidative stress in L929 cells.