Ao, X., Lubman, D. M., Davis, M. A., Xing, X., Kong, F;chM., Lawrence, T. S. and Zhang, M. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Radiation-Induced Changes in Mouse Lung: Fibrosis-Sensitive and -Resistant Strains. Radiat. Res. 169, 417–425 (2008).
To determine whether comparative proteomics could detect differential protein expression after lung irradiation in two mouse strains with different radiation responses, lung proteins were subjected to two-dimensional orthogonal liquid-phase separations, with chromatofocusing in the first dimension and nonporous silica reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NPS-RP-HPLC) in the second. Five weeks after 12 Gy whole-lung irradiation, 15 and 31 proteins had significantly altered expression levels in C3H/HeJ (less likely to develop lung fibrosis) and C57BL/6J mice (more likely to develop lung fibrosis), respectively. These proteins were analyzed by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and identified by matching sequences in a peptide database. The proteins are associated with redox, energy consumption, glycolysis, or chromatin/ RNA structure formation. Five of the six redox-related proteins, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), cytochrome c oxidase, glutamate dehydrogenase, biliverdin reductase, peroxiredoxin and carbonyl reductase, were down-regulated in the irradiated C57BL/6J mice, whereas SOD1, sulfurtransferase and carbonyl reductase increased in the irradiated C3H/ HeJ mice. Thus decreased antioxidant proteins in the irradiated C57BL/6J mice may be correlated with increased early lung toxicity. Changes in SOD1 and 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG, an oxidative stress marker) were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis. These data suggest that a proteomics approach has the potential to detect protein changes relevant to early lung toxicity after irradiation.