Radiotherapy is commonly employed to treat cancers of the head and neck and is increasingly used to treat other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Exceeding the radiation tolerance of normal CNS tissues can result in sequelae contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. Animal studies and clinical experience suggest that neuroinflammation plays a role in the etiology of these effects; however, detailed characterization of this response has been lacking. Therefore, a dose–time investigation of the neuroinflammatory response after single-dose cranial irradiation was performed using C57BL/6 mice. Consistent with previous reports, cranial irradiation resulted in multiphasic inflammatory changes exemplified by increased transcript levels of inflammatory cytokines, along with glial and endothelial cell activation. Cranial irradiation also resulted in acute infiltration of neutrophils and a delayed increase in T cells, MHC II-positive cells, and CD11c-positive cells seen first at 1 month with doses ≥15 Gy. CD11c-positive cells were found almost exclusively in white matter and expressed MHC II, suggesting a “mature” dendritic cell phenotype that remained elevated out to 1 year postirradiation. Our results indicate that cranial irradiation leads to persistent neuroinflammatory changes in the C57BL/6 mouse brain that includes unique immunomodulatory cell populations.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 176 • No. 4