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6 April 2015 Biodosimetry Based on γ-H2AX Quantification and Cytogenetics after Partial- and Total-Body Irradiation during Fractionated Radiotherapy
Sebastian Zahnreich, Anne Ebersberger, Bernd Kaina, Heinz Schmidberger
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The aim of this current study was to quantitatively describe radiation-induced DNA damage and its distribution in leukocytes of cancer patients after fractionated partial- or total-body radiotherapy. Specifically, the impact of exposed anatomic region and administered dose was investigated in breast and prostate cancer patients receiving partial-body radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by γ-H2AX immunostaining. The frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations in stimulated lymphocytes was also determined and compared with the frequency of DNA DSBs in the same samples. The frequency of radiation-induced DNA damage was converted into dose, using ex vivo generated calibration curves, and was then compared with the administered physical dose. This study showed that 0.5 h after partial-body radiotherapy the quantity of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci increased linearly with the administered equivalent whole-body dose for both tumor entities. Foci frequencies dropped 1 day thereafter but proportionality to the equivalent whole-body dose was maintained. Conversely, the frequency of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage increased from 0.5 h to 1 day after the first partial-body exposure with a linear dependence on the administered equivalent whole-body dose, for prostate cancer patients only. Only γ-H2AX foci assessment immediately after partial-body radiotherapy was a reliable measure of the expected equivalent whole-body dose. Local tumor doses could be approximated with both assays after one day. After total-body radiotherapy satisfactory dose estimates were achieved with both assays up to 8 h after exposure. In conclusion, the quantification of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, but not cytogenetic damage in peripheral leukocytes was a sensitive and rapid biodosimeter after acute heterogeneous irradiation of partial body volumes that was able to primarily assess the absorbed equivalent whole-body dose.

Sebastian Zahnreich, Anne Ebersberger, Bernd Kaina, and Heinz Schmidberger "Biodosimetry Based on γ-H2AX Quantification and Cytogenetics after Partial- and Total-Body Irradiation during Fractionated Radiotherapy," Radiation Research 183(4), 432-446, (6 April 2015).
Received: 15 September 2014; Accepted: 1 December 2014; Published: 6 April 2015
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